Samuil Kaplan and the development of astrophysical research at the Lviv University
Ivan Franko National University of Lviv, 8, Kyryla i Methodia Str., 79005, L’viv, Ukraine
2 Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, 64/13, Volodymyrska Str., 01601, Kyiv, Ukraine
3 Pidstryhach Institute for Applied Problems of Mechanics and Mathematics, NASU, 3-b, Naukova Str., 79060, L’viv, Ukraine
Accepted: 5 September 2022
Published online: 12 October 2022
Samuil Kaplan (1921–1978) was a productive and famous astrophysicist. He was affiliated with a number of scientific centers in different cities of former Soviet Union. The earliest 13 years of his career, namely in the 1948–1961 years, he worked in Lviv University in Ukraine (then it was called the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic). In the present paper, the Lviv period of his life and scientific activity is described on the basis of archival materials and his published studies. Kaplan arrived in Lviv in June 1948, at the same month when he obtained the degree of Candidate of science. He was a head of the astrophysics sector at the Astronomical Observatory of the University, was a professor of department for theoretical physics as well as the founder and head of a station for optical observations of artificial satellites of Earth. He was active in the organization of the astronomical observational site outside of the city. During the years in Lviv, Kaplan wrote more than 80 articles and 3 monographs in 9 areas. The focus of his interests at that time was on stability of circular orbits in the Schwarzschild field, on white dwarf theory, on space gas dynamics, and cosmic plasma physics, and turbulence, on acceleration of cosmic rays, on physics of interstellar medium, on physics and evolution of stars, on cosmology and gravitation, and on optical observations of Earth artificial satellites. Some of his results are fundamental for development of theory in these fields as well as of observational techniques. The complete bibliography of his works published during the Lviv period is presented. Respective scientific achievements of Samuil Kaplan are reviewed in the light of the current state of research in these areas.
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